Treatment Considerations for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2023)

A multi-pronged approach to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is considered the most effective and safest way to treat anxiety due to the wide range of causal factors and dysregulation of various neurotransmitters that are often involved. With a focus on correcting neurotransmitter imbalances in the limbic system, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, clinicians can choose from several scientifically supported nutrients and herbs the ones that are most appropriate for each patient to modulate these pathways and change the course of this disorder.


A multipronged approach to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is considered the most effective and safest way to treat anxiety due to the wide range of causal factors and dysregulation of various neurotransmitters that are often involved. With a focus on correcting neurotransmitter imbalances in the limbic system, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, clinicians can choose from several scientifically supported nutrients and herbs the ones that are most appropriate for each patient to modulate these pathways and change the course of this disorder.


The National Institute of Mental Health describes generalized anxiety as a chronic pattern of constant worry and fear.1 It is a state of apprehension and concern in the absence of a real threat. Kessler et al reported in 2010 that general anxiety disorders affect the United States population at a rate of between 13.6% and 28.8%.2 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that anxiety disorders, including GAD, are among the most common mental health issues faced by today’s general population.3 GAD is the most common anxiety disorder, and estimates show that it affects more women than men.4

When an individual has 3 or more anxiety symptoms for a period of 6 consecutive months on an almost daily basis, they may be diagnosed with GAD.5 Symptoms can be placed into 2 categories: mental/emotional and somatic (see Table 1). Identifying somatic symptoms related to anxiety is a key factor in accurate diagnosis. Several studies have shown that patients with GAD in primary care present with somatic symptoms only and may not be aware of their anxiety issues.6,7

While this paper will focus on neurochemical imbalances of GAD and the nutrients and herbs that have been demonstrated to address dysfunction and imbalance, it is important to note that several dietary and lifestyle factors can influence the initiation and progression of this disorder and can exacerbate symptoms. Contributing factors include:
• nutrient deficiencies
• food intolerances (in particular gluten)
• reactive hypoglycemia with episodic hyperglycemia
• caffeine, drug, and alcohol use
• chronic distress
• childhood and significant adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
• environmental factors

(Video) Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) - causes, symptoms & treatment

Comprehensive management of GAD using a multimodality approach will require exploring these contributing factors. At the same time, addressing the neurotransmitter imbalances in the limbic system and HPA axis dysfunction can be an efficacious means of managing the anxiety. These 2 pathways intersect in a significant manner, which allows the practitioner a logical basis to target underlying physiological pathways rather than merely treat symptoms.

Fear is activated in the amygdala, a key component of the limbic system. This activation causes increased levels of serotonin and increased sympathetic nervous activity with resultant increases in norepinephrine and serotonin.8 Prolonged elevation of serotonin and norepinephrine contribute to feelings of anxiety. In addition, hyperactivity of the amygdala and hypothalamus increase corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH). Elevated CRH is highly implicated in anxiety and depression. In fact, anxiety associated with elevated CRH is often preceded by depression.9 This elevation of CRH is accentuated by elevated serotonin. Prolonged elevation of serotonin interferes with the HPA axis’s dynamic responsiveness to stress. Chronically, this interference leads to a feed-forward situation of the HPA stress response system, which results in a flattened, and typically high, cortisol level with alterations in the cortisol circadian rhythm. This elevation of cortisol ultimately results in reduced sensitivity to negative feedback on the part of the hypothalamus and pituitary. This perpetuates the sustained elevation of CRH and resultant anxiety.10

Conventional medicine utilizes these pathways to impact this condition. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) reduce amygdala hyper-reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli. However, for some individuals, SSRI medications are ineffective and, in fact, aggravate anxiety. Benzodiazepines, the most commonly prescribed class of anxiolytic drugs, bind to and stimulate gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. While effective for short-term use (24 weeks), the risk-benefit ratio for longer-term use of benzodiazepines is unestablished.11 In addition, side effects can include fatigue, confusion, depression, dizziness, memory deficits, and blurred vision. Withdrawal from benzodiazepines is difficult as these medications are habituating. Withdrawal can cause acute anxiety and may lead to seizures.12Therefore, it is prudent to look at nutrients and herbs as complementary or alternative strategies that can impact the underlying pathophysiology of anxiety.

There are a number of key neurotransmitters in the amygdala that when imbalanced can be connected to issues of anxiety. While this is a complex dynamic interaction, in general, people with GAD have hyperactive neuronal activity producing the various symptoms previous mentioned.

Correcting Neurochemical Issues with Nutrients and Herbs

Many options are available to healthcare practitioners who wish to employ alternatives to conventionally prescribed anxiolytics for the treatment of GAD. Amino acids and botanicals that correct key neurotransmitter imbalances, namely that reduce inappropriately elevated levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, may reduce GAD. In addition, decreased oxytocin has been linked to a worsening of anxiety issues.13 Oxytocin reduces amygdala activity and in so doing has an anxiolytic effect. A therapeutic goal with GAD is, therefore, to increase oxytocin.14

(Video) Generalized Anxiety Disorder | Diagnosis and Treatment

Chronic dysregulation and activation of the HPA axis is associated with anxiety. This HPA dysregulation can cause an elevation in CRH, which, as mentioned above, has been linked to increased anxiety.15 Elevated CRH is also linked to increased serotonin and stimulation of the amygdala, which causes a reduction in oxytocin levels. When CRH is normalized, oxytocin is increased, and elevated serotonin is reduced. The combined effect is significantly anxiolytic.

GABA, glycine, magnesium, glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) are nutrients that inhibit excitatory neurotransmitters. Ensuring proper amounts of amino acid levels is critical, especially arginine and lysine. Smriga et al demonstrated in a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial that lysine and arginine supplementation reduced anxiety in both men and women compared to placebo.16

L-theanine, an amino acid found in tea (Camellia sinensis), has been shown in several studies to increase dopamine and serotonin production and GABA activity.17 L-theanine also generates alpha waves in the central nervous system, resulting in a relaxed yet alert state. Lu et al also demonstrated that L-theanine can create a relaxed state18 while Lyon et al showed that L-theanine helped boys diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder to sleep better.19

Specific vitamins and minerals have been shown to reduce anxiety. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial by Carroll et al found that men who took a multivitamin and mineral formula had significant reductions in anxiety compared to placebo.20 In their double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trial, Souza et al showed that magnesium plus vitamin B6 reduced premenstrual anxiety and GAD in women.21

Omega-3 fatty acids positively impact anxiety disorders on many levels including reducing corticol hyper-excitability and norepinephrine levels, as well as increasing dopamine binding, improving stress tolerance, and providing direct anxiolytic effects. Kiecolt-Glaser et al found in their double-blind, randomized, clinical trial that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduced anxiety in medical students.22

(Video) How to Diagnose and Treat Generalized Anxiety Disorder? - Insights from Dr Sanil Rege (Psychiatrist)

Several studies have shown that supplemental phosphatidylserine reduces anxiety measures by decreasing CRH and blunting cortisol levels.23,24

The anxiolytic effects of the volatile oil of lavender (Lavender angustifolia) have been the subject of many randomized clinical trials. Perry et al reviewed 15 randomized clinical trials and concluded that oral lavender supplements may have a therapeutic effect.25 In a well-designed randomized clinical trial, Woelk et al compared an oral lavender extract (Silexan 1265) to lorazepam for the treatment of GAD and found that 40% of the lavender group went into remission compared to 27% of the lorazepam group.26 When compared to placebo, Kasper et al found that this same lavender oil extract significantly decreased anxiety (P<0.01) and had a superior percentage of responders (76.9 vs 49.1%;P<0.001) and remitters (60.6 vs 42.6% P=0.009).27 Uehleke et al had similar results using lavender oil for restlessness caused by sub-threshold anxiety in adults with chronic fatigue, post-traumatic stress disorder, or somatization disorder.28

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an adaptogenic herb that has also been shown to increase dopamine receptors in the brain while the reducing the anxiety-producing effects of norepinephrine. Several studies have shown that Ashwagandha has anxiolytic effects.29 Another interesting clinical trial by Cooley et al compared naturopathic care that featured Ashwagandha supplementation to standardized psychotherapy. In this randomized clinical trial, there was significantly greater improvement of anxiety parameters in the naturopathic care group compared to the psychotherapy group.30

Two of the active constituents of magnolia (Magnolia officinalis), honokiol and magnolol, enhance neutrotransmitter activity and reduce anxiety. Preliminary animal data shows honokiol compared favorably to benzodiazepines without the side effects.31 Kalman et al demonstrated reduced anxiety in postmenopausal women with above average anxiety scores who took a combination of standardized honokiol and berberine. Compared to placebo, the treatment group reported a significant reduction in perceived anxiety (P=0.043).32

Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) is a botanical primarily used to treat menopausal symptoms; however, some data exists to warrant consideration in cases of anxiety. Geller and Studee evaluated 4 randomized clinical trials that utilized black cohosh for mood and anxiety with 1 trial that combined black cohosh with St. John’s wort. All 4 studies found reduced anxiety compared to placebo, and 1 of the studies showed reduction equivalent to standard hormone replacement therapy.33

(Video) Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Symptoms, Causes & Treatment #LewisPsychology

Finally, the botanical kava (Piper methysticum) can be considered for patients experiencing GAD. This botanical has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, it is not widely prescribed due to concerns regarding hepatotoxicity that arose from a published case study, but which have not been observed in controlled clinical trials. These concerns are likely the result of herb/drug interactions and/or poor quality extracts, rather than the botanical itself. Sarris et al evaluated the safety profile of kava compared to placebo and found no significant differences across the groups in liver function tests, nor were there any significant adverse reactions that could be attributed to the kava.34 In this study, kava was also shown to increase libido in women correlated with reduced anxiety.


Successful therapeutic intervention requires that any underlying neurotransmitter or hormonal imbalances be addressed.Of course, the most effective approach would include dietary and lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity, increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and omega-3 rich foods. Such dietary and lifestyle recommendations are beyond the scope of this paper.

Working in concert with appropriate diet and lifestyle changes, certain nutrients and herbs can assist with symptom management and help to address the key neurochemical pathways that contribute to and exacerbate generalized anxiety. While more rigorous clinical data will help further validate the use of these nutrients and herbs, their preliminary efficacy and safety profile compared to pharmaceutical agents presently being used makes them candidates for first-line treatment consideration.

Table 1: Anxiey Symptoms

Mental/Emotional Symptoms

• Fear
• Decreased libido
• Decreased emotionality
• Irritability
• Restlessness, inability to relax
• Difficulty concentrating

(Video) CBT Generalized Anxiety Disorder (3 Tools To Reclaim Your Life!)

Somatic Symptoms

• Arrhythmia
• Dyspnea
• Nausea
• Sweating
• Tremor
• Increased urination
• Increased appetite
• Diarrhea
• Vertigo
• Increased pain sensitivity

Table 2: Author's suggested dosage ranges

Natural TherapySuggested Daily Dosages
Magnesium (as citrate, malate, glycinateor fumarate)200–400 mg
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)50 mg
GABA500–750 mg
Glycine500–2,000 mg
Glutathione250–500 mg
N-acetyl-cysteine600–1,200 mg
Lysine1,000–2,500 mg
Arginine1,000–2,500 mg
L-theanine200–400 mg
Omega-3 fatty acids2,000–3,000 mg
Phosphatidylserine400–800 mg
Lavender essential oil extract (Silexan WS 1265)80–160 mg
Withania somnifera (ashwagandha)500–600 mg (standardized extract to 1.5% withanolides)
Honokiol100–400 mg
Black cohosh (Actea racemosa)40–80 mg (standardized extract to 5%–8% triterpene glycosides)
Kava (Piper methysticum)200–250 mg kava lactones


What are some important considerations when treating anxiety disorders? ›

Coping and support
  • Learn about your disorder. Talk to your doctor or mental health provider. ...
  • Stick to your treatment plan. Take medications as directed. ...
  • Take action. ...
  • Keep a journal. ...
  • Join an anxiety support group. ...
  • Learn time management techniques. ...
  • Socialize. ...
  • Break the cycle.

How do you deal with generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Here are 11 tips for coping with an anxiety disorder:
  1. Keep physically active. ...
  2. Avoid alcohol and recreational drugs. ...
  3. Quit smoking, and cut back or quit drinking caffeinated beverages. ...
  4. Use stress management and relaxation techniques. ...
  5. Make sleep a priority. ...
  6. Eat healthy foods. ...
  7. Learn about your disorder.
20 Jul 2021

What is first line treatment for generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally considered first-line therapy for GAD and PD.

What are the 4 treatment options for anxiety disorders? ›

Four major classes of medications are used to treat anxiety disorders: SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), SNRI (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), tricyclic antidepressant, and benzodiazepine.

What are 5 treatments for anxiety? ›

Some ways to manage anxiety disorders include learning about anxiety, mindfulness, relaxation techniques, correct breathing techniques, dietary adjustments, exercise, learning to be assertive, building self-esteem, cognitive therapy, exposure therapy, structured problem solving, medication and support groups.

What are 3 treatment options that are available for anxiety disorders? ›

Several types of medications are used to treat generalized anxiety disorder, including those below.
  • Antidepressants. ...
  • Buspirone. ...
  • Benzodiazepines.
13 Oct 2017

Why is it important to treat generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Early recognition and effective treatment of GAD are essential to reducing the burden associated with this chronic and prevalent condition. Treating this complex and often chronic disorder requires considerable expertise and management within a collaborative stepped-care approach.

What are the 2 main types of treatment for anxiety? ›

Approaches include:
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most common type of psychotherapy used with anxiety disorders. CBT for anxiety teaches you to recognize thought patterns and behaviors that lead to troublesome feelings. ...
  • Exposure therapy focuses on dealing with the fears behind the anxiety disorder.
17 Dec 2020

What is the most effective medication for generalized anxiety disorder? ›

The first medication doctors will usually recommend for GAD is antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are both types of antidepressants. They will work in between 30 and 50% of cases.

What is the safest treatment for anxiety? ›

SSRIs and SNRIs are often the first-line treatment for anxiety. Common SSRI brands are Celexa, Lexapro, Luvox, Paxil, and Zoloft. Common SNRI brands are Pristiq, Cymbalta, and Effexor XR. Pros: They are effective for a lot of people and they have a solid safety profile.

What are the challenges of generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Patients experience excessive worry that is debilitating to their daily functioning. They experience apprehension, “on edge” feelings, fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sleeping. Comorbid depression is quite likely in this population.

How do you live with generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Outside of therapy, patients with anxiety can learn to live with it by using relaxation techniques, by changing negative thoughts, and by making positive changes to reduce stress. Also important to living with generalized anxiety is being socially engaged and taking time for healthy self-care.

Does GAD need medication? ›

Your GP can prescribe a variety of different types of medication to treat GAD. Some medication is designed to be taken on a short-term basis, while others are prescribed for longer periods. Depending on your symptoms, you may need medication to treat your physical symptoms, as well as your psychological ones.

When should you treat anxiety with medication? ›

7 Signs You Might Benefit from Anti-Anxiety Medication
  1. You're Perpetually Nervous and on Edge. ...
  2. You Avoid Things That Are Good for You. ...
  3. You Toss and Turn Every Night. ...
  4. You Have Mysterious Aches and Pains. ...
  5. You Have a Permanent Bellyache. ...
  6. You Work Hard but Get Nothing Done. ...
  7. You Regularly Fly Off the Handle.

What are the 5 symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Symptoms of GAD include:
  • Feeling restless, wound-up, or on-edge.
  • Being easily fatigued.
  • Having difficulty concentrating.
  • Being irritable.
  • Having headaches, muscle aches, stomachaches, or unexplained pains.
  • Difficulty controlling feelings of worry.
  • Having sleep problems, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep.

What is one of the major concerns of anti anxiety medications? ›

Some of the general side effects associated with anti-anxiety medications may include drowsiness, confusion, and clumsiness. This is the case even with low doses. The higher the dose, the more intense the side effects are. When abused, benzodiazepines can lead to death.

Why is it important to have good techniques to deal with anxiety? ›

Long-term coping techniques can help prepare someone for stressful situations and events. They might make a person less likely to experience severe anxiety over time.

Why is it important to seek treatment for anxiety? ›

Why is it important to seek treatment for these disorders? If left untreated, anxiety disorders can have severe consequences. For example, some people who suffer from recurring panic attacks avoid at all costs putting themselves in a situation that they fear may trigger an attack.

Why is it important for anxiety disorder to be diagnosed and treated? ›

They're a group of mental illnesses that cause constant and overwhelming anxiety and fear. The excessive anxiety can make you avoid work, school, family get-togethers, and other social situations that might trigger or worsen your symptoms. With treatment, many people with anxiety disorders can manage their feelings.

What do I need to know before taking anxiety medication? ›

Potential side effects of anxiety medications include nausea, restlessness, nervousness, decreased libido, insomnia, drowsiness, weight fluctuations, dry mouth, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, confusion and even worsened anxiety. Side effects depend on the type of anxiety medication your doctor prescribes.

Which anxiety medication has the greatest potential for misuse? ›

  • Common Anxiety Medication Abuse. Specifically, the two most abused prescription drugs for anxiety are Valium and Xanax. ...
  • Klonopin, Ativan, and Halcion. Klonopin, Ativan, and Halcion all hold a dangerous abuse potential. ...
  • Seek Help for the Most Abused Prescription Drugs for Anxiety.

What is the major concerns with the long term use of benzodiazepines in treatment of anxiety? ›

Benzodiazepines increase the risk of addiction, withdrawal, cognitive decline, motor vehicle crashes, and hip fracture. The risk of overdose is particularly great when combined with sedative drugs such as opioids or alcohol.

Why is early intervention important for anxiety? ›

Interventions have been shown to improve outcomes including resilience and self-esteem, reduce anxiety or depressive symptoms, and prevent violent and aggressive behaviour.

When should you seek treatment for anxiety? ›

Although everyone experiences stress and anxiety to some degree, it's time to seek professional help when your anxiety:
  • Interferes with personal or professional relationships.
  • Creates persistent sleep issues.
  • Affects your ability to concentrate.
  • Stops you from doing the things you enjoy.

When should you seek therapy for anxiety? ›

If your anxiety keeps you from sleeping, working, social interactions, or errands, you may want to reach out to a therapist. If you feel anxious for more than half the week for six months or longer, it's probably time to seek help. To find a therapist near you, visit the Psychology Today Therapy Directory.

What is necessary for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder? ›

GAD is diagnosed when a person finds it difficult to control worry on more days than not for at least six months and has three or more symptoms. This differentiates GAD from worry that may be specific to a set stressor or for a more limited period of time.

What is the DSM 5 criteria for generalized anxiety disorder? ›

Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at least 6 months, about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance). The person finds it difficult to control the worry.


1. Anxiety: Signs & Treatment Options for Anxiety Disorder | Stanford
(Stanford Center for Health Education)
2. Best Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Integrated Care @ NEOMED ECHO
(NEOMED: Project ECHO)
3. Treating generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)
(NHS inform)
4. Understanding and treating anxiety disorders
(University of Bath)
5. Anxiety Disorder and how to treat it? - Doctor explains
6. Generalized anxiety disorder and coping strategies
(Demystifying Medicine McMaster)
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